Coffee review

Introduction to Miao Coffee Estate, the 2024 Thailand Excellence Cup COE Champion

Published: 2024-07-21 Author:
Last Updated: 2024/07/21, In Asia, there are suitable geographical environment and other conditions, and the Asian continent spans the three cold, warm and hot zones, with complex and diverse climate types. Therefore, many countries in Asia grow coffee, such as Yunnan, Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, etc. The history of coffee in Thailand dates back to the end of the 19th century, when Thailand was in Rama

In Asia, there are suitable geographical conditions, and the Asian continent spans cold, warm and hot zones, and the climate types are complex and diverse, so coffee is grown in many Asian countries, such as Yunnan, Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia and so on.

The history of coffee in Thailand dates back to the late 19th century, when Thailand was under the reign of King Rama V, when Dutch merchants brought coffee trees to Thailand from Indonesia, but coffee cultivation was not taken seriously at that time.

The real reason for the development of Thai coffee was in the 1970s, when King Bhumibol Adulyadej Adulyadej of Thailand issued a new royal project to grow other cash crops instead of opium cultivation in the country, and coffee was chosen as a suitable alternative crop because the growing environment of coffee trees is similar to that of opium poppy. The royal project selected coffee cultivation in the mountains of northern Thailand, especially Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai provinces, and has gradually developed to this day.

The overall topography of Thailand is high in the north and low in the south, with more than 50% of the plains and lowlands. The terrain is mainly divided into four natural areas, namely, the mountain jungle in the north, the flat and fertile Chao Phraya plain in the middle, the Khorat plateau in the northeast, the continuation of the western mountains in southern Thailand, and the Malay Peninsula to the south.

Most parts of Thailand have a tropical monsoon climate, and the whole year is divided into three seasons: hot season (February-May), rainy season (June-October) and cool season (November-February). The annual average temperature is 27.7 ℃, the highest temperature can reach more than 40 ℃, the annual average rainfall is 1100 mm, and the average humidity is 66% 82%. The country is rich in natural resources, high-altitude mountains, many rivers, abundant Rain Water, and suitable climate and temperature, making coffee one of the main cash crops in the country.

In recent decades, due to Robusta's high environmental tolerance, good cultivation and high coffee production, production has also increased significantly in southern Thailand. However, in recent years, with the growing global demand for boutique coffee, Thailand has also begun to pay attention to the cultivation of Arabica varieties, and improve its planting quality and enhance its international influence.

According to the differences in regional climate and geological conditions, the Thai government is mainly divided into north and south coffee growing areas. Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai and Lampang are the main growing areas of Arabica varieties in the north, while Chuntang and Suratani in the south are the main growing areas of Robusta.

In recent years, the Thai government is developing new planting areas in the north, with the exception of Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai and Nambang, as well as Nan in the north of the country.

Nan is located in the remote valley of the Nan River in the north, surrounded by mountains and forests, and the highest mountain range, Phu Khe, is 2079 meters above sea level. However, it has only begun to develop in recent years because of its remote location and slow development compared with other cities. Although the degree of development is slow, the local is more primitive, so coffee can grow better here.

In 2022, the non-profit organization Coffee Excellence (ACE) looked for excellent coffee around the world, so it organized a COE competition in Thailand and provided opportunities for local Thai farmers at the same time. The COE competition was held every year in Thailand, and the results of this year's COE competition were also announced, with the Hmong Coffee Farm (Coffee De Hmong Biofarm) from Kan Prefecture, which won the COE championship in 2023, won the championship with a score of 91.8 points.

The Hmong Coffee Manor (Coffee De Hmong Biofarm) in Nan Fu, located in the deep mountains and forests of Nan Fu, is now run by Wichai Kamnerd Mongkon and his family. Part of the estate was once a forest, while the other part was growing crops such as cabbage. It only began to grow coffee in 2012, starting with the cultivation of rose summer Geisha, Katim Catimor and Java varieties, and has been organic for many years before winning the COE competition.