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Introduction of Katim Coffee Bean Variety Group, Coffee varieties and Yunnan small grains Katim

Published: 2024-02-29 Author:
Last Updated: 2024/02/29, Coffee varieties can be divided into three categories: Arabica, Robusta and Liberica. With the development of the coffee industry, many varieties have been bred through continuous transplantation, mutation and mating. Kaddura (Caturra)

Coffee varieties can be divided into three categories: Arabica, Robusta and Liberica. With the development of the coffee industry, many varieties have been bred through continuous transplantation, mutation and mating. Kaddura (Caturra), Catuai (Catimor) and other well-known varieties are all mutated and hybridized. Bourbon, Kaddura and Kaduai coffee beans have been introduced earlier. Today, let's take a look at Katim, an artificial hybrid bred to resist leaf rust.

After hundreds of years, the cultivation of coffee has gradually spread all over the world. But in fact, each kind of plant has its own "regional adaptability". It still takes a period of adaptation time to move from its native place to other countries in order to survive. But it was not always plain sailing. In 1869, leaf rust began to invade Arabica coffee plantations, first in Asia, including estates in India, Java, Indonesia and Sri Lanka, all planted with iron pickup Typica.

When Europeans see Asian coffee farms affected by leaf rust, they also find ways to prevent it, that is, to replace new varieties, so they look for bourbon Bourbon. The French brought bourbon back to Brazil from the island of Reunion, and Brazilian coffee plantations were replaced in large numbers in 1870. During the time after planting, there was a mutation in bourbon due to adaptation to the American climate, resulting in the emergence of a variety Kaddura Caturra, and a mutant Vera Saatchi Villa Sache in bourbon planted in Costa Rica in 1950. When leaf rust came to America in 1970, it still affected Ironpickup and bourbon and its variants. And greatly reduce the production of coffee gardens in various countries, resulting in significant economic losses. So botanists from various countries began to study the use of scientific hybrids for disease resistance of new varieties.

In 1920, Timor Hybrid appeared on the island of East Timor, which is a natural cross between Arabica and Robusta. It belongs to Arabica coffee plant, but it has the disease resistance gene of Robusta. Therefore, the first generation of F1 hybrid group was produced by crossing Timor variety with Kaddura, which is now Katim Catimor.

Katim is only the first generation of cross between Kaddura and Timor, codenamed T8667, but it still needs to be determined by breeding, so Katim is not a variety, but a breed group with similar lineages. In addition, Timor crossed with another bourbon variety to become the Sachimo Sarchimor variety group, codenamed T5296. These varieties are particularly suitable for planting at an altitude of about 700-1000 meters, and are rapidly planted in American coffee plantations as a new variety with high yield, disease resistance and adaptability to warm climates at low elevations. Since the late 1980s, national coffee laboratories have begun to develop their own Katim subspecies.

Costa Rica T8667 and T5175 are selected by the Costa Rican Centre for Tropical Agricultural Research and higher Education (CATIE), which introduced F5 offspring bred by Portuguese H26 materials. T refers to the location of the institute, Turrialba. Another variety, Costa Rica95, was developed by the Costa Rican Coffee Institute (ICAFE) and released in June 1995.

Costa Rica95

The Katim variety developed in Honduras by the Honduran Coffee Institute (HCAFE), called Lempira, can grow at an altitude of 600-1000 meters.

Lempira

El Salvador is cultivated by the Salvadoran Coffee Institute (ISIC), called Catisic, and can be grown in acidic soil at an altitude of 600-1200 meters.

Catisic

Originally, tin trucks were grown in Yunnan. In the 1990s, Nestl é introduced Katim to Yunnan to produce instant coffee. For farmers, it is much cheaper to take care of Katim than a tin pickup, and it produces twice as much as Katim, resulting in a volume-based production mode. At present, Katim, Tieka, Bourbon, Kaddura and other varieties are also planted in Yunnan. However, Qianjie also has a small Katim coffee bean from Yunnan, washed and tasted with melons and fruits, with a little plum acid and cocoa flavor, black tea taste and overall balance.

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