Introduction of Robusta variety, Timor variety, Katim, Castillo variety and Yunnan small grain Katim
In today's coffee market, coffee can be divided into three categories: Arabica, Robusta and Liberica. At present, the most famous commercial coffee varieties are Arabica and Robusta.
Robusta, which originated in the Congo in West Africa, is usually compared with Arabica, but they are two tree species in genetic sequence comparison. Robusta actually belongs to the Canefra species, also known as the Congolese species, but among the Canefola species, only the Robusta species can be commercialized and well known, so now Lobusta has replaced Canefra as a synonym for the species.
Coffee grows in the equator between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Cancer all over the world, and so does Robusta. But Robusta's growth conditions are not as harsh as Arabica. Robusta can plant and bear fruit at lower elevations, can adapt to high temperature environment, and has better disease resistance. Robusta grows faster and is more tolerant to extreme weather conditions. At present, Robusta is widely planted in Vietnam, Brazil, India and other countries.
Robusta contains between 2.7 and 4% caffeine, twice as much as Arabica. Caffeine is also a natural insect repellent for plants, which can be protected from some insects. Robusta is cross-pollinated, but Arabica is self-pollinated, and pollination involves genetic problems.
In general, cross-pollination produces higher plant varieties, and offspring produced by cross-pollination have the genetic symptoms of two parent plants, which may produce new characteristics that can help it produce in a changing environment. Arabica, which is self-pollinated, is more vulnerable because the genes become more and more single in the process of continuous reproduction, so when some viruses appear (such as leaf rust, berry disease, etc.), coffee with a single gene may be eliminated. So Robusta's strength lies in its ability to adapt to the environment by constantly changing its genes.
Robusta has higher levels of caffeine, amino acids and chlorogenic acid than Arabica, which is the source of bitterness. So Robusta said that the taste is thicker and lower, and the flavor is more inclined to walnuts, nuts, grains and so on. As a result, Robusta is not used as boutique coffee, but is mostly used in mixed beans or instant coffee.
However, with the development of the coffee industry, coffee varieties have been bred through continuous transplantation, mutation and mating, and Robusta can also be used to cross with Arabica so that it can have Robusta resistance genes. For example, Timor (known as Tim Tim in Indonesia), Katim Catimor, Castillo Castillo and so on.
In 1920, Timor Hybrid appeared on the island of East Timor, which is a natural cross between Arabica and Robusta. It belongs to Arabica coffee plant, but it has the disease resistance gene of Robusta. Therefore, the first generation of F1 hybrid group was produced by crossing Timor variety with Kaddura, which is now Katim Catimor. In 1961, the Columbia Research Center began to study varieties resistant to leaf rust, such as Kaddura and Timor Hybrid. After 23 years of research, six varieties such as Castillo were developed and widely planted in 2005.
Qianjie also has a small Katim coffee bean from Yunnan, washed and tasted with melons and fruits, with a little plum acid and cocoa flavor, black tea taste and overall balance.
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WCR is about to launch the Robusta breeding program, and trials have been conducted to plant Robusta varieties in Uganda.
Over the past few decades, Robusta has grown into a major market force for coffee, rising from 25% to 40% of global coffee production since the early 1990s. Judging from the current situation, the demand for Robusta will increase in the future. However, Robusta's planting also